Scandium: Characteristics, Origin And Applications

Scandium: Characteristics, Origin and Applications



Historically considered a rare earth metal, Scandium is a transition metal with a chemical element symbol Sc and atomic number 21 (its number in the periodic table). It is one of the scarcest chemical elements available for extraction; it has only a few known sources worldwide where it is found co-present in rare earth deposits and deposits of uranium compounds.


Scandium has a silvery white color with a hexagonal crystal structure when seen under the microscope. In its extracted, original form, it is a soft silver metal that is highly susceptible to weathering and dilution in acids. When exposed to air, its outer sheen casts a light yellow or light pink hue as a reaction to oxidation.

Scandium is scarce for extraction, but mineralogists consider scandium to be the 50th most common element on earth and the 35th most common element found in the earth s crust. It is almost comparable in availability to cobalt. The reason for this seeming irony is that while scandium is relatively common in the earth s crust, its distribution makes it very difficult to harvest in a wide scale. Scandium is found mostly in trace amounts scattered sparsely among

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many kinds of minerals which include uranium and rare earth metals.

Origin and History

Scandium has a slow development compared to other metals and chemical elements. It was first discovered by Lars Fredrik Nilson in 1879 and named after Scandinavia where it was found in minerals of euxenite and gadolinite thru a process called spectral analysis.

Despite its relatively early discovery, scandium s potential for various applications were only tested and exploited in the 1930s. This led to the development of metallic scandium in 1937. During that time, scandium resources were as limited as it is at present. This and the difficulty in

preparing metallic scandium led to its slow development.

It would take another 30 years before applications for scandium were further developed; in 1971, it was discovered that scandium mixed with aluminium alloy can strengthen the alloy for commercial and industrial usage. Scandium-aluminium alloy has remained to be scandium s only major application in industries for decades since.

At present, there are only three mines that commercially produce scandium: Zhovti Vody in Ukraine (in uranium and iron mines); Kola peninsula, Russia (in apatite mines); and Bayan Obo, China (rare earth mines). Other known scandium-rich deposits in the world include Madagascar in Africa and Norway in Europe. Neither is being exploited for their scandium contents.

Uses and Applications

Regular and stable sources of scandium are limited. With no promise of a long term production of scandium, its array of uses and applications in industries, commerce, and technology are not fully identified.

This notwithstanding, scandium still enjoys promising applications particularly in its ability to strengthen aluminium alloys. Only 0.5% of scandium is enough to significantly strengthen aluminium alloys, resulting to scandium-aluminium alloys used in aircrafts, sports equipments, and firearms. Scandium-stabilized zirconia is also being recognized as a high efficiency electrolyte for use in fuel cells, particularly solid oxide fuel cells.

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Winding Machine}



winding machineTransformer is one of electrical device which is used to make some action on electrical energy transition with help of electromagnetic induction. As we people already know about the working of transformer in our school studies itself. Transformer having two kind of windings such as 1^o winding and 2^o winding. According to the arrangement the transformer work will be vary. In simple classification of transformer is about step up transformer, step down transformer and ideal transformers.In a manner corresponding of construction transformer will be available in many more classifications. Transformers usage is more in our real-time activities such as both domestic and commercial process. Now a day we people live in one of luxury lifestyles with different electrical devices even though electricity is one of essential thing to make some comfortable zone. That the things transformer can able to avoid the voltage fluctuation in different electrical devices. In spite of these things there will more companies starts to doing their manufacturing process on transformer. In consonance with manufacture they are making different kind of transformer based on the winding nature and usage of different types of wires such copper, aluminum, litz wire etc..,Once start to involve in manufacturing process of transformer we must follow and maintain some important parameters to avoid the different losses. There are some parameters is so precious to maintain during manufacture on transformer they are polarity, Effect of frequency, energy losses, core losses in this its having two different losses such as hysteresis losses and eddy current losses, magnetostriction this will happen due to expand of ferromagnetic material and stray losses.Another important issue to make a transformer is about shape, actually we people already know about one of thing when changing of shape it will chance to change the working nature of device. We need to agree that. Likewise the transformer can be made as rectangular shape, circular shape, even laminated cores such as square. While making transformer in rectangular shape will be so easy to manufacture and compact on usage. Alike transformers can be made as in the shape of circular also that will able offer and sustain in higher frequency of about 10’s of KHz to 100’s of MHz, this kind of structural transformer said to be a toroid transformers.The performance of transformers is mainly based on the winding nature. During the process of winding there will be chance of arising different questions, they are about type of wire, wire size and number of windings on desired cores.In that the first fact on transformer winding is to select the wire may be a copper, aluminum or magnetic wires. Each material as their own nature to attain the process of transformer. When make some comparison about the copper and magnetic wires means, both having the good resistive nature, copper possess the avoidance of losses capacity over the magnetic wires. Even in magnetic wires can be induction process as faster than copper wire..

Actually based on the application we able to choose the materials to manufacture the transformer.After choosing the

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Winding machine

material we need to analyze the size of wire which should be used in transformer. Wire size is important to reduce the heat losses, all the manufactures needs to know about Clark’s table to make the efficient transformer with less losses

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Outsourcing Data Entry Is Actually Best Business Decision To Stay In The Market}

Outsourcing Data Entry Is Actually Best Business Decision To Stay In The Market


Joseph H. HaydenYour company gets the benefits of outsourcing data entry would be a wise choice. Many offshore companies to make quick and accurate data entry services. Recent reports say that the trend towards outsourcing of low-priority task to continue to grow gradually.

In the early days, was for a particular purpose as a temporary alternative to the idea of outsourcing, the industry has become the best option. Company is considered a temporary solution; strategic outsourcing is a business decision. Services to improve their services will reduce costs through outsourcing.

A continuous growth of Internet users is online at home data entry successfully. Many companies instead of Internet entrepreneurs to employ staff to choose their data entry work to outsource. Home allows many options to choose from. Data entry services are blessings for businesses, organizations, medical units, telecom industry and financial firms that convert their operational work into an easy job and make it more organized.

Rather, outsourcing data entry work for the company used an expensive price. The cause was non-availability of sufficient resources.

Data entry work has become so popular today that housewives, students and professionals looking for extra income sitting at home when people take part in such jobs. They are definitely considered to be the least expensive source, but they are assured of quality work. It is therefore important to choose a professional organization has a good job.

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A professional and is a complete outsourcing solution provider offline data entry, online data entry, image entry, data processing, check processing, both literally and offers a range including the numerical data entry companies also flexible packages and pricing system with your budget and wishes to offer to justify.

To a data-entry work is a difficult task for hundreds of online fraud is to ask you a certain amount of money as registration fees are deposited. Unfortunately, there are people who use the data entry industry, and to accept his money and mislead honest people are capable of little or no value in exchange.

Special Data Entry Made Easy is a reliable place to make money online. Most people coming to this program, because he never attempted an exact sense a scam, says. The monthly data in the proposed measure, it offers many of its members to promote is based.

The benefits of outsourcing data entry

Data entry outsourcing company that gives you many benefits including:

By outsourcing, you can easily focus on core business competencies and goals.

In the cut – throat competition, outsourcing the expensive cost of personnel is a careful monitoring.

By outsourcing, you can enjoy the benefits of scale. If you use an outsourcing company will save your precious money, no doubt improve their operational efficiency.

Organizations need to worry about outsourcing deadlines.

Most companies located in countries such as India, low cost offshore outsourcing, Indonesia, etc., with expertise in handling and data entry operations. So, outsourcing data entry work to benefit the organization time, money and productivity than firms that can benefit by increasing efficiency in the field of course.

Joseph Hayden writes article on

Website Data Scraping


Form Data Entry


Data Entry India

, Content Writing Services, Outsource Data Entry India etc.

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